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[彭牧]从信仰到信:美国民俗学的民间宗教研究[1]
  作者:彭牧 | 中国民俗学网   发布日期:2011-05-31 | 点击数:26531
 

  [21] Yoder, Don. "Folk Medicine." In Folklore and Folklife: An Introduction, edited by Richard M. Dorson, 191-215. Chicago: the University of Chicago Press, 1972, p.193.

  [22] Hand, Wayland D.“Introduction to Popular Beliefs and Superstitions from North Carolina.” In The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore, edited by Wayland D. Hand, VI: xix-xlvii. Durham: Duke University Press, 1961, p. xix.

  [23] Yoder, Don. "Toward a Definition of Folk Religion." In Discovering American Folklife: Studies in Ethnic, Religious, and Regional Culture, edited by Don Yoder: UMI Research Press, 1990 (1974), p.83.

  [24] Hahn, Robert A. "Understanding Beliefs: An Essay on the Methodology of the Statement and Analysis of Belief Systems." Current Anthropology 14, no. 3 (Jun.) (1973), p.209.

  [25] Motz, Marilyn. "The Practice of Belief." Journal of American Folklore 111, no. 441 (1998), p.349.

  [26] 例如Ben-Amos, Dan. "Toward a Definition of Folklore in Context." Journal of American Folklore 84 (1971): 3-15。参见拙文《实践、文化政治学与美国民俗学的表演理论》,《民间文化论坛》, pp.90-97, 2005,第5期。

  [27] Hufford, David J. "Ambiguity and the Rhetoric of Belief." Keystone Folklore 21 (1976),pp.11, 21-22.

  [28] 现代医学称之为梦魇或睡眠瘫痪(sleep paralysis)。

  [29] 参见Hufford, David J. The Terror That Comes in the Night: An Experience-Centered Study of Supernatural Assault Traditions, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982, pp. xvii, xix.

  [30] 同上,p.245.

  [31] James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experiences. New York: Longmans, Green, 1902. 唐钺译,商务印书馆,2004。

  [32] 表现性文化(expressive culture)在当代美国民俗学界几乎可以看作是民俗的代名词,如Bendix, Regina. In Search of Authenticity: The Formation of Folklore Studies. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997, p.23, p. 299 index.

  [33] Laurel Kendall: “Initiating Performance: the Story of Chini, A Korean Shaman”, in C. Laderman and M. Roseman ed. The Performance of Healing, London: Routledge, 1995. 转引自 Schieffelin, Edward L. "Problematizing Performance." In Ritual, Performance, Media, edited by Felicia Hughes-Freeland, Routledge, 1998, p. 201. 卡洛斯·卡斯塔涅达(Carlos Castaneda)在1968年出版了《唐璜的教导:雅基式知识》(The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, Berkeley: University of California Press)一书,当时他还是人类学研究生。书中描绘了一位神秘的印第安萨满唐璜(Don Juan)的神奇魔法与能力,使他名声大噪,虽然事后证明这绝非民族志描绘,但卡斯塔涅达依然续写了11部有关唐璜的作品,一直十分畅销,甚至至今他的出版商依然把其作品列为非小说。

  [34] 参见Sherry B. Ortner, “Theory in Anthropology since the Sixties”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, p.144-146, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1984,及拙文《实践、文化政治学与美国民俗学的表演理论》,《民间文化论坛》, pp.90-97, 2005,第5期。

  [35] Hufford, David J. "The Experience-Centered Analysis of Belief Stories: A Haunting Example in Honor of Kenny Goldstein." In Fields of Folklore: Essays in Honor of Kenneth S. Goldstein, edited by Roger D. Abrahams and Michael Robert Evans et al., 55-89. Bloomington, IN: Trickster, 1995, p.58.

  [36] Hufford, David J. "Introduction." In Reflexivity and the Study of Belief (Special Issue of Western Folklore 54 No.1), edited by David J. Hufford, 1-11, 1995, p.2.

  [37] Hufford, David J. The Terror That Comes in the Night: An Experience-Centered Study of Supernatural Assault Traditions, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982, p. xiii.

  [38] 参见Hufford, David J. "Traditions of Disbelief." New York Folklore 8, no. 3-4 (1982): 47-56 和 "The Supernatural and the Sociology of Knowledge: Explaining Academic Belief." New York Folklore 9, no. 1-2 (1983): 21-29, 以及 "Reason, Rhetoric, and Religion: Academic Ideology Versus Folk Belief." New York Folklore 11, no. 1-4 (1985): 177-94.

  [39] Hufford, David J. "Folklore Studies Applied to Health." Journal of Folklore Research 35, no. Sept-Dec(3): (1998), pp.302, 303. 除了民间宗教,包括中医在内的“另类医学”(alternative medicine) 是哈弗德的另一个研究领域。

  [40] 例如Fish, Lydia, ed. The Folklore and Belief (Special Issue of New York Folklore Vol. 8, No. 3-4), 1982 和Hufford, David J. ed. Reflexivity and the Study of Belief (Special Issue of Western

  Folklore 54 No.1), 1995.以及Walker, Barbara, ed. Out of the Ordinary: Folklore and the Supernatural. Utah State University Press, 1995.

  [41] Hufford, David J. "Beings without Bodies: An Experience-Centered Theory of the Belief in Spirits." In Out of the Ordinary: Folklore and the Supernatural, edited by Barbara Walker, 11-45: Utah State University Press, 1995. 和“The Experience-Centered Analysis of Belief Stories: A Haunting Example in Honor of Kenny Goldstein." In Fields of Folklore: Essays in Honor of Kenneth S. Goldstein, edited by Roger D. Abrahams and Michael Robert Evans et al., 55-89. Bloomington, IN: Trickster, 1995, p.57.

  [42] 详见Hufford, David J. "Beings without Bodies: An Experience-Centered Theory of the Belief in Spirits." In Out of the Ordinary: Folklore and the Supernatural, edited by Barbara Walker, 11-45: Utah State University Press, 1995.

  [43] 同上,p.20及他的"The Experience-Centered Analysis of Belief Stories: A Haunting Example in Honor of Kenny Goldstein." In Fields of Folklore: Essays in Honor of Kenneth S. Goldstein, edited by Roger D. Abrahams and Michael Robert Evans et al., 55-89. Bloomington, IN: Trickster, 1995, p.57.

  [44] Hufford, David J. "Beings without Bodies: An Experience-Centered Theory of the Belief in Spirits." In Out of the Ordinary: Folklore and the Supernatural, edited by Barbara Walker, 11-45: Utah State University Press, 1995, p.20.

  [45] 参见Orsi, Robert A. “Introduction to the second edition”, 见他的 The Madonna of 115th Street: Faith and Community in Italian Harlem, 1880-1950. Yale University Press, 2002, pp.ix-xxxviii. 及他的Thank You, Saint Jude: Women’s Devotion to the Patron Saint of Hopeless Causes. Yale University Press, 1998 和Between Heaven and Earth: The Religious Worlds People Make and the Scholars Who Study Them. Princeton University Press, 2005.

  [46] 参见Primiano, Leonard Norman. "Postmodern Sites of Catholic Sacred Materiality." In Perspectives on American Religion and Culture, edited by Peter W. Williams, 187-202: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. 和"Oprah, Phil, Geraldo, Barbara, and Things That Go Bump in the Night: Negotiating the Supernatural on American Television." In God in the Details: American Religion in Popular Culture, edited by Eric Michael Mazur et al., 47-63: Routledge Press, 2001. 以及"Textures of Religious Life: The Vernacular Religious Art of Sister Ann Ameen." In Art and the Religious Impulse, edited by Eric Michael Mazur et al. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2002.

  [47]有意思的是,英语中这些知识往往就被称为belief (信仰)。参见Hufford, David J. "Ambiguity and the Rhetoric of Belief." Keystone Folklore 21 (1976): 11-24, p.12.和 "Traditions of Disbelief." New York Folklore 8, no. 3-4 (1982): 47-56, p.47. 以及"Beings without Bodies: An Experience-Centered Theory of the Belief in Spirits." In Out of the Ordinary: Folklore and the Supernatural, edited by Barbara Walker, 11-45: Utah State University Press, 1995, p.19. 及O'Connor, Bonnie Blair. Healing Traditions: Alternative Medicine and the Health Professions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995, p.8.

  [48] Hufford, David J. "Beings without Bodies: An Experience-Centered Theory of the Belief in Spirits." In Out of the Ordinary: Folklore and the Supernatural, edited by Barbara Walker, 11-45: Utah State University Press, 1995, p.40.


(本文刊于《民俗研究》2011年第1期)

 


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